Project topic: “Development of technology of live-culture yogurt based on small cattle milk with encapsulated fruit and berry concentrate”
Relevance. The expansion of the range of food products containing useful substances for health, corresponding to the physiological needs of a person, is a global trend today. Scientific approaches to improving the health of the human body, as well as its active life, based on the massive use of fermented milk products with probiotic and prebiotic properties, are a new promising direction in the strategy of improving the entire population. According to the scientific data of Japanese scientists, the use of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the composition of probiotic preparations and in functional foods already at the beginning of the 21st century replaced the existing market of chemical drugs by half.
Today, one of the most popular fermented milk drinks around the world is yogurt. Yoghurt is a representative of a class of fermented (sour-milk or fermented) products, as well as a popular, modern and healthy dairy product, the production of which is increasing every year.
The biological properties of yogurt are expressed in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, stimulation of the growth of beneficial intestinal microflora and anti-carcinogenic manifestation, but no matter how diverse the range of yogurts in terms of their fillers, be it berries, fruits, cereals, raw materials are used for production in 95% of cases – cow’s milk .
The creation of a functional yogurt with a balanced composition can be realized due to the multicomponent nature, in particular, by combining raw materials of animal (due to the use of milk of various animals) and vegetable origin. To solve this problem, the use of sheep and goat milk for the development of new recipes and technologies for dairy products is of great interest.
The aim of the work is to expand the range and increase the export potential of functional dairy products by developing a technology for live yogurt based on sheep and goat milk with encapsulated fruit and berry concentrate.
Results of research work for 2020-2021
A 20-year-deep patent search was carried out on existing technologies and recipes for the production of live yogurt, as a result, 141 units of titles of protection were selected. The security documents of Russia, China, the USA, France, the International Bureau of WIPO and the European Patent Office, etc., are noted as the most clearly reflecting the development of this industry.
As a result of the analysis of the selected patent documentation, it was found that Russia has the largest number of titles of protection – 37 units, the USA – 24 units, China – 19 units.
The results of the physico-chemical composition (organoleptic quality indicators, humidity, solids, SOMO, protein, fat, lactose, density, titratable acidity, active acidity pH, freezing point and viscosity) and technological properties (thermal stability, clotting) of sheep and goat milk were obtained. 4 breeds of sheep (Kazakh fine-fleeced, Merino, Edilbay and Ile De Franz) and 3 breeds of goats (Saanen, Nubian and Alpine) collected in the autumn lactation period (September-October).
Recipes have been substantiated and developed, technological processes and technology for obtaining functional live yoghurt based on sheep and goat milk have been investigated.
Recipes have been compiled: Recipe No. 1 for yogurt from sheep’s milk (per 100 kg of product, excluding losses). 1st option: whole sheep’s milk – 96.0 kg, sourdough based on skim milk – 4.0 kg; 2nd option: whole sheep’s milk – 100 kg; sourdough direct introduction with activity – 10U. Recipe No. 2 for yogurt based on goat’s milk (per 100 kg of the product, excluding losses): 1st option: whole goat’s milk – 95.0 kg, skimmed milk sourdough – 5.0 kg; 2nd option: whole goat milk – 100 kg; sourdough direct introduction with activity – 10U.
The following processes have been studied: receiving and preparing raw materials, processing raw materials and filtering, pasteurization, homogenization, cooling to the fermentation process, fermentation, cooling, bottling, post-cooling and storage.
The technology of live functional yogurt based on sheep and goat milk has been developed:
Milk is accepted according to the quantity and quality established by the production laboratory. The selected milk is normalized by the content of fat and dry fat-free substances according to the recipe for this type of yogurt, then it is cleaned on centrifugal cleaners.
Normalized milk is pasteurized at temperatures of 85-87°C with a holding time of 5-10 minutes, or 90-92°C with a holding time of 2-5 seconds for a more complete destruction of the microflora, the destruction of enzymes, a better development of the starter culture, and an improvement in the consistency of the product.
Then the milk is cooled to the optimum fermentation temperature of 40-42°C, and the starter is immediately introduced into it to prevent the development of foreign microflora.
Milk is fermented and fermented in a tank with a cooled jacket, equipped with special agitators for uniform mixing of milk and curd.
Fermented with starters: thermophilic streptococcus Streptococcus thermophillus, Bulgarian bacillus Lactobacillus bulgaricus, acidophilic bacillus Lactobacillus acidophilus, live cells of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum cultures are introduced to obtain bio-yogurt.
Upon completion of fermentation, the yogurt is immediately cooled. With the thermostatic method, it is sent to the refrigerator, where it is cooled to a temperature of 6-8°C. Care must be taken when handling the product to avoid breaking the clot. The clot obtained by the reservoir method is mixed and cooled in the same container by supplying ice water to the reservoir jacket.
The product is packaged in consumer containers, sealed in accordance with the requirements of the current technical specifications, then the encapsulated fortified concentrate is packaged, sealed and sent for maturation and cooling to a temperature not exceeding 6°C. After that, the yogurt is transported and sold.
Ready yogurt is stored at a temperature of 4±2°C and a humidity of 85-90% under strict sanitary and hygienic conditions.
Two sparing methods for the manufacture of concentrates from fruits and berries have been developed in accordance with the specificity of the raw material:
Method 1, for raw materials subject to direct extraction (apples, grapes, cherries, etc.), includes: washing, direct extraction, filtration from large impurities, concentration (at 56ºС and a pressure of 0.7 atm), pasteurization (at 80ºС, in within 15 min) and packaging.
Method 2, for raw materials not subjected to direct extraction (raspberries, strawberries, currants, etc.), includes: washing, homogenization, extraction (at 50 ºС for 15 minutes) with the addition of a hydromodule (1:1 or 1:0, 5), filtration from large impurities, concentration (at 56ºС and a pressure of 0.7 atm), pasteurization (at 80ºС, for 15 minutes) and packaging.
The adopted methods for the manufacture of concentrates made it possible to preserve the content, especially unstable vitamin C, to the maximum and to obtain raw materials technologically suitable for encapsulation with an excellent presentation, bright taste and aroma.
The analysis of physicochemical and biochemical parameters of zoned raw materials was carried out, in particular:
The analysis of physicochemical and biochemical parameters of encapsulated concentrates was carried out:
- from cherry “Luybskaya” (vitamin “C” – 13.8 mg /%; total sugar – 12.96%; total titratable acidity – 1.70%; soluble solids – 22.0%), according to organoleptic properties it has a pronounced cherry sour taste and aroma, color – rich red;
- from grapes “Kibraysky early” (vitamin “C” – 4.06 mg /%; total sugar – 26.4%; total titratable acidity – 0.82%; soluble solids – 25.0%), according to organoleptic properties it has pronounced sweet grape taste and aroma, color – rich burgundy, without impurities;
- from apple «Golden Delicious »(vitamin “C” – 14.2 mg /%; total sugar – 20.8%; total titratable acidity – 1.17%; soluble solids – 24.0%), according to organoleptic properties it has a sweet and sour taste of apple juice , dark yellow color, without impurities;
- from black currant «”Minay Shmyrev”»(vitamin “C” – 140.4 mg /%; total sugar – 14.4%; total titratable acidity – 1.40%; soluble solids – 24.0%), according to organoleptic properties it has a bright sour taste of currant, color – red-black;
- from strawberries “Zenga-Zengana” (vitamin “C” – 24.5 mg /%; total sugar – 14.8%; total titratable acidity – 2.54%; soluble solids – 20.0%), according to organoleptic properties has a bright sweet and sour taste of strawberries, color – red, without impurities;
- from raspberries “News of Kuzmina” (vitamin “C” – 48.0 mg /%; total sugar – 14.0%; total titratable acidity – 2.12%; soluble solids – 20.0%), according to organoleptic properties it has bright sweet and sour taste of raspberries, red color, without foreign impurities.
Furthermore,11 recipes for concentrates have been developed based on mixing the above ingredients at various concentrations. Recipes are divided into 2 groups – 1st group “up to 7 years old”, the second group “7+” depending on the ingredients used.
The choice of a shell of sodium alginate for the manufacture of capsules is justified – since the filler is a water-containing substance, it is necessary to use an insoluble shell to form capsules. Gelatin, which is widely used in the production of capsules for dry powders and balms (oils), is not suitable due to its solubility in water. As for agar and sodium alginate, pectin, etc., also widely used for the production of soft edible capsules, they can be applicable, but there is a significant difference between them – agar and pectin spheres differ from alginate spheres by the absence of a liquid center, which is not is suitable for the concept of the project, which is to create bursting capsules of fruit and berry concentrates, which, when combined with sheep and goat milk yogurt (SGM), will create a bright taste.
Under laboratory conditions, the technological regime for the manufacture of alginate capsules by the drop method was worked out. For the normal formation of capsules, the pH of the filler should not be lower than 4 units; sodium citrate is used to reduce the acidity of concentrates. The concentration of alginate is not higher than 1% and the concentration of calcium salt is 1%. To prevent the process of gelation, it is necessary to heat the spheres in a bath of water to 85°C for 10 minutes. With such a manipulation, the gelification process stops, and the center of the sphere remains liquid. Prototypes have been developed – they turned out to be stable when stored in a neutral environment of the filler.
The main structural and mechanical properties of yogurt after mixing it with capsules at storage temperature (+3°С…+5°С), as well as at room temperature (+18°С…+22°С) and based on the results of sensory assessment of quality and textures of yogurt from SGM mixed with capsules according to M. Bourne: taste – a combination of the taste of the capsule filler with a neutral taste of yogurt from SGM, reveals when consumed, in particular when biting the capsules and exiting the filler; smell – when mixed, yogurt acquires the smell of filler ingredients; color – when mixed, yogurt turns into a neutral color of the filler; texture according to tactile assessment – yogurt does not change its consistency, however, when consumed, there is a feeling of graininess from capsules, and fibrous and juicy taste of the filler after cracking the capsule; texture by kinetic assessment – the consistency of yogurt and the consistency of jelly-like capsules with filler are felt separately; texture according to the auditory assessment – when consumed, a slight crunch of the capsules appears; texture by visual assessment – the structure changes, the yogurt takes the form of yogurt filled with capsules.
It has been established that yogurt does not deteriorate due to the neutral environment of the capsules, mixing the homogeneous structure of yogurt with capsules has a positive effect on the taste range, the product acquires a new look and taste, while not losing its quality, both at storage temperature and at room temperature. temperature.
The process of acid formation in milk mixtures with encapsulated fruit and berry and fruit concentrates has been studied. It has been established that the milk mixture added to the starter culture Lactobacillus bulgaricus has a low acid-forming activity; the use of a combined starter culture Lactobacillus acidophilus is proposed. The addition of fruit and berry and fruit concentrate to the milk mixture has a positive effect on the activity of acid formation. During the fermentation of the product, the pH value varied from 4.6 to 4.83.
The rheological properties of live yoghurts from SGM (viscosity and shear stress, the dependence of viscosity on the velocity gradient and the content of vegetable additives) were studied. The rheological parameters of yoghurts prepared from the milk of selected breeds of sheep were studied. The measurements were carried out on a rotational viscometer. At a temperature of 25 ° C, spindle speed from 0 to 200 rpm. A sample of yogurt prepared from cow’s milk served as a control. The measurement range of the viscosity of experimental yoghurt variants depends on the speed of rotation of the spindle, its size and shape, as well as on the size and shape of the sample container in which the spindle rotated, and the linear range of the calibrated spring torque. The torque for the calibrated spring in the – RVDV-II+ Pro is 0.7187 mN×m (or 7187.0 Din×cm).
The qualitative indicators of new developed live yoghurts with encapsulated concentrate based on SGM have been studied. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that the production of yogurt from sheep’s milk does not require additional introduction of milk protein to increase dry matter in the product, for example: the amount of dry matter in sheep’s milk of the Kazakh fine-wool breed is 17.51, and in yogurt 18.42; in the milk of the South Kazakh Merino breed, the amount of solids is 14.44, in yogurt 18.0; in the milk of the Meat Merino breed, the amount of solids is 16.8, in yogurt 19.14; in the milk of the Ordabasy breed, the amount of solids is 15.8, in yogurt 18.86. The acidity in yogurt in all breeds of sheep ranges from 75°T to 95°T. The mass fraction of fat is from 5.6% – 7.84%. MSNF( milk solids non-fat) within 9.5.
According to organoleptic indicators, yoghurts meet the requirements of the standard: color – white with a slightly yellowish tint, smell – pure sour milk, appearance and texture – thick, homogeneous without flakes, taste – pleasant, sweetish.
Purchased and carried out launches and testing of the operating modes of mini-modules of the technological chain for the production of yogurt and encapsulation of fortified concentrate; development of pilot batches and establishment of terms, modes of storage of live yoghurts based on sheep and goat milk with encapsulated concentrates of various fruits, berries and fruits. The work will continue.
According to the results of research, published:
- Design and modeling of new food products. Bulletin of SUSU. Series “Food and Biotechnology”. 2021. 9, No. 3. S. 23-31. Authors: A.B. Ospanov, Sh.M. Velyamov, B.O. Kulzhanova, R.K. Makeeva, M.Zh. Bektursunova, N.Z. Ospanov, M.M. Patsaev T. The journal is included in the RSCI. doi: 10.14529/food210303.
- Study of the physico-chemical composition and technological properties of sheep and goat milk in the summer period of lactation. Theoretical and scientific-practical journal “Storage and processing of agricultural products (HIPS)” No. 2 – 2021, MGUPP, ISSN 2072-9669 eISSN 2658-767X, pp. 64-74. Authors: Ospanov A.B., Kulzhanova B. .O., Shchetinina E.M., Velyamov Sh.M., Makeeva R.K., Bektursunova M.D. The journal is included in the RSCI list. https://doi.org/10.36107/spfp.2021.237.
- Study of physical and chemical composition and Technological properties of milk of Kazakhstan sheep and goat breeds during the summer lactation period. The ІІІ International Science Conference «Modern Science and Practice», 04 – 06 оctober, 2021. Varna, Bulgaria. ISBN – 978-9-40362-457-0, р. 9-15. Авторы: Оспанов А.Б., Құлжанова Б.О., Макеева Р.К. URL: https://eu-conf.com.
- A promising direction for the development of the dairy industry in Kazakhstan is the production and processing of milk from small cattle. Accepted for the 4th edition of the journal “Polzunovskiy Vestnik”, indexed in the scientific database of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation. Authors: Ospanov A.B., Shchetinina E.M., Kulzhanova B.O., Makeeva R.K. https://polzvestnik.altstu.ru/polz_vestnik/2021_3/85/.
- Development of yogurt production in Kazakhstan made from sheep’s and goat’s milk with capsulated fruit and berry concentrates. International Conference on «Embracing and Transformation – Breakthrough Innovation and Creativity», 26 september, 2021. Authors: Ospanov A.B., Velyamov Sh.M., Kulzhanova B.O., Bektursunova M.D., Makeeva R.K.
- Development of yogurt production in Kazakhstan made from sheep’s and goat’s milk with capsulated fruit and berry concentrates. Article submitted to Journal of Management Information and Decision Science (Special Issue) having ISSN: 1524-7252. (Scopus. Percentile 52). Аuthors: Ospanov A.B., Velyamov Sh.M., Kulzhanova B.O., Bektursunova M.D., Makeeva R.K.
A.B.Ospanov , Project Manager, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member. NAS RK – ORCID: 0000-0003-2396-3419
B.O.Kulzhanova , Executive Officer, SNS – ORCID: 0000-0002-7266-8566
Sh.M.Velyamov , Senior Researcher, PhD – ORCID: 0000-0002-5997-5182
E.Zh.Zhaksybayeva , SNS, PhD-doctoral student
M.Zh.Bektursynova , SNS, PhD-doctoral student
R.K. Makeeva, process engineer
M.M.Patsaev , junior research assistant, undergraduate
N.Z.Ospanov , junior research assistant, undergraduate
M.T.Mamytbaev , junior